Here we describe changes that have been made to BETA for this project.


A new module mechamism based on singular nested objects has replaced the fragment system of the official BETA language.

A module is a singular object (object-descriptor to be precise) that has the property of being mapped to a file.

Modules may be nested and are mapped to a hierarchical directory/file-structure.

For a description of the new module system see the paper


In the official BETA language there is a distinction between objects of kind item and component. An item is a passive object and a component is an active object that behavves like a coroutine.

In BETA, any object may be a coroutine.


Repetitions (the BETA term for arrays) are inspired by indexed objects in Smalltalk. An object-descriptor may declare at most one repetition, which is inlined in the object. The elements of the repetition may be accessed in the usual style.


  (# top: @integer;
     elements: [0] @integer;
     push: (# elm: @integer enter elm do top + 1 -> top; elm ->  elements[top]; #);
     pop: (# elm: @integer do elements[top] -> elm; top - 1 -> top exit elm #)

S: ^Stack

do ...; &Stack(100)[] -> S[];  14 -> S-push; ...

Pattern text

The pattern Text is implemented using the new repetition mechanism

A text-literal like 'Hello world' is represented by a Text-object.

It is thus possible to invoke operations on a text-literal like

'world' -> 'hello '.append

Subpattern restrictions

A pattern may be restricted by subpattern restrictions.